The teachings of Islam were handed down to humanity through Mohammed who's commonly regarded as the last, to date, inside the distinct Middle Eastern prophets. The first was Abraham of Judaism renown, then there was clearly Jesus for Christianity after which came Mohammed. Mohammed came to be in about 570 AD in Mecca, western Saudi Arabia and passed away 62 years later in 632 in Medina.
The Koran, or the 'Recitation' in English, consists of 144 chapters and was associated with Mohammed by God. These teachings were down on paper by his scribes throughout 23 years.
Like its predecessor religions, Islam is a monotheistic religion and its narrative includes stories or references to Abraham, Moses (as well as the Ten Commandments) and Jesus, but doesn't accept Christianity's declaration of his divinity.
Another major difference from the Middle Eastern religions before it, is always that Jews trace their lineage through Abraham's son Isaac, whereas Muslims trace their history through Abraham's son Ishmael by another wife.
The root from the word Islam - 's-l-m' - means 'peace' and 'submission' (to God). A Muslim's connection to God is determined by the 'Five Pillars of Islam'. These five pillars are: Shahadah (profession of faith); public and collective prayer half a dozen times daily; charity to the poor; fasting throughout the holy month of Ramadan and a pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest of places to Muslims, at least one time within their lifetime.
Islam has strict dietary laws, notably about eating pork, and prohibitions against promiscuity, stealing, gambling and deceit. Muslims worship in Mosques as well as the services are held by Imams. One of the most critical time for you to pray are at midday over a Friday, which is the Muslim Sabbath.
The vast majority of Muslims are Sunnites, who are the traditionalists, as well as the rest are Shi'ites or 'partisans'. This might generally be in comparison with the connection between Judaism and Christianity. The distinctions between the two sects inside the both religions have caused untold misery on the centuries and there is no symbol of it stopping any time soon.
There is considerably more known about Mohammed than about Jesus. Mohammed was mentioned by his uncle and at age 25 he would be a trader. At the chronilogical age of 40, in 610, an angel instructed him to spread the term of God. He was not accepted in Mecca however the authorities invited him to quell the city of Medina in 622, that they accomplished.
His condition for accepting it might be was that the people accept the phrase of God. This they did - this move is called the Hegim and it is the date that Muslims record contemporary history - like the Western world uses the birth of Jesus.
By 632 Mohammed was dead, but by then the overwhelming most of Arabs were Muslims. For just one reason or any other, Islam spread east and west from Saudi Arabia taken mostly by Arab traders probably. Islam never actually got a foothold in Europe (except Spain) however it did move East fairly extensively.